The Carriers and Protectors of Cell-to-Cell Communication
Discovered more than 30 years ago, Exosomes are vesicles secreted by most cell types already found in the body. Over the past several years, evidence indicates these secreted vesicles are so small in size they are formed inside the cell and act as messengers. An Exosome actually carries and transfers information to neighboring or distant cells much like a delivery truck.
Different cell types release Exosomes that haul specific proteins, lipids and growth factor details to targeted cells in the body. Exosomes securely carry this information and are guided, similar to GPS, by exterior molecules that target the recipient cell. Although this information originates from a person’s cell, there is no DNA transferred within the Exosome payload between bodies or cells.
Once united, the targeted cell absorbs the Exosome, along with its cargo instructions, to begin it’s physiological transformation.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells: the modern-day fountain of youth
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most accessible primary cells and can be easily collected from a large variety of tissues. The ease of isolation and specialized biological functions of MSCs have made them a popular choice for cell therapy research. Their ability to differentiate has characterized them as seeds with therapeutic properties to reconstruct, regenerate and repair.
MSCs can produce high amounts of Exosomes, therefore, passing along their therapeutic attributes. Because Exosomes reflect properties of their source cells, younger MSCs produce seven times more Exosomes than older, adult MSCs.